The Video is about the Spanish conquest of the great Empire of the Incas and about Machu Picchu, the lost city of the Incas. The magnetism of the city is still very present even within the clouds and rain. Tourists from all over  the world go to this place 8000 feet up in the Andes.The indigenous think that the city should be accessible to everybody and that they can handle a few more tourists.

If you like you can do a short game about this country by clicking on this link and then on start:


1st part:Please put the verbs from simple past into present tense.

2nd part: Substitute words in bold letters.

Yesterday we  1. went to see a highly interesting exhibition about the Incas in Brescia and it 2.was explained to us that:

Their empire 3.was based on other cultures such as the Moches, Nazcas or Cupisnique.


The Incas, a South American people, 4.built one of the largest and wealthiest empires in the western hemisphere. It 5.extended more than 4000km2 and 6.included and served as the capital and 7.was in southern Peru. Machu Picchu, a stronghold, is a city in the Andes in Peru and was rediscovered in 1911. regions of present-day Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina. The city Cusco was the capital city of the Incas.

There is an eagle in me that wants to soar, and there is a hippopotamus in me that wants to wallow in the mud” Carl Sandburg quotes
There is an eagle in me that wants to soar, and there is a hippopotamus in me that wants to wallow in the mud”
Carl Sandburg quotes/”Ich habe einen Adler in mir, der in die Höhe fliegen möchte und ich habe auch ein Nilpferd in mir, das im Dreck suhlen möchte.”



They 8.believed in animal spirits living on the earth. Heaven 9.was depicted by an eagle,(condor) the underworld by an anaconda and the brother who 10. lived on earth was a puma or fish, according to where the people 11. lived.

They 12. thanked the sun (Sun God Inti) for lighting and the wind for giving air and  Pachama, Mother Earth, for the food. These three parts together 13.represented divinity.They believed, however, that all deities were created by the all-powerful and everlasting Sun God. They also believed in the healing capacity of plants and minerals and their relationship with nature was very intensive.

Answers:1 go/2 is explained /3 is based (passive) 4 build/ 5 extend/6 include/7is/8 believe/9is depicted (passive)/10 live/11 thank/13 represent/

Substitute the words in bold letters with other words of the same meaning


The Incas didn’t have a written language and 1.passed down their history orally from generation to generation and by means of their stone architecture, drainage systems, jewels, crop terraces temples or road system despite the fact that they didn’t know the wheel.

They never disturbed the harmony of nature with their 2.constructions and they didn’t need to use cement or mortar.


They worked gold and stones in a really 3.astonishing way. Unfortunately the Spaniards didn’t realize how precious those things were and melted them into bars. They stole thousands and thousands of tons of gold from the Incas. Luckily many jewels (necklaces, earrings, crown, nose rings or gold bibs) were later discovered in tombs. Gold didn’t have the same meaning to the Incas as to us, because for them it represented a way of communication between God and the 4.human being.

It seems that even when the Incas fought wars they wore rich golden and ornamented attires and threw gold balls at their enemy but not in order to kill the 5.opponent but to show off their gold. Whether this is true or not, I don’t know, but it is interesting to hear that they were not at all materialistic.

To be rich didn’t mean to possess much gold but to be respected in society and to have a big family. A much shocked Spaniard 6.narrated that he had assisted to a ritual where the INCAS sacrificed many children in one go! They were certinly the most valuable of what they had to offer.

They put gold into the tombs of their 7.beloved ones, but not for the afterlife but for the present life. The relatives took the skeletons out of the tombs for special celebrations with the family!

The priestess Cao’s jewels contained gold that stood for man, sun or authority and silver which represented the woman or the moon . Last but not least only the emperor had the right to always wear gold because he was also considered a divinity.

 It is health that is real wealth and not pieces of gold and silver. Mahatma Gandhi

“It is health that is real wealth and not pieces of gold and silver.Gesundheit ist der wirkliche Reichtum und nicht Goldstücke und Silber. La salute è la richezza vera e non pezzi d’oro e d’argento.
Mahatma Gandhi


They were very much 8.ahead of the Spaniards as far as knowledge about surgery is concerned . They had very sophisticated means of communication called “QUIPU”, slender ropes with colour knotted strings, representing information.Woman continued to chew grains of maize which then fermented and out of which they produced “Chicha” or beer. They gave the world the potatoes.They also raised guinea pigs, dogs and ducks, which were their main meat protein. A very important 9. tool was the “Tumi” which they used to kill animals or sometimes enemies.


This very important empire lost against the Spanish 10 conquistadores in 1532 or against Pizarro and his only 200 men which seems quite unbelievable nowadays. We were explained that it was because of their way of making war.  

I’ve however also read that the INCAS lost against the Spaniards because they got smallpox from them or because they were afraid of the Spaniards’ horses. Due do the fact that there are no written documents about this peoples, it is difficult to know how it really was, but the Incas were a highly interesting empire.

Here we can see the Favelas.
Here we can see the Favelas.

Answers:1. Pass down: tell stories of the past to younger people. 2. constructions=buildings/3astonishing=surprising/4 human being= man, 5  opponent=enemy /6 narrate= tell/7 beloved ones = parents/relatives/8 ahead = more developed /9 = tool =device /10 conquerors


I can only recommend you to go to Machu Picchu by this train and see for yourself!

Read more about the INCAS:


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