THINGS FALL APART BY CHINUA ACHEBE/E/D/I


Blumen blühen überall

Zum Glück blühen Blumen überall! Fortunately, flower bloom everywhere/Per fortuna, fiori fioriscono dappertutto!

ENGLISH

After having read the wonderful books “Americanah” and “Purple Hibiscus” by the Nigerian writer Chimamandah Ngozi Adichie, a friend of mine recommended to also read Chinua Achebe’s magnum opus “Things Fall Apart” which is at the same time, a most famous poem by William Butler Yeats written in the wake of the first world war and in which Chinua Achebe saw certainly parallels between the chaos in Europe and the upheavals caused by the European colonization in Africa that finally lead to the self-destruction of the Igbo culture.

Here you can listen to the story within the story of a tortoise and birds:

DEUTSCH

Nachdem ich die wunderschönen Bücher “Americanah” und “Blauer Hibiskus” der nigerianischen Schriftstellerin Chimamanda Ngozo Adichie, gelesen habe,hat mir nun ein Freund unbedingt Chinua Achibe’s Meisterwerk “Things fall apart/Alles zerfällt” empfohlen. Dies ist gleichzeitig auch ein sehr berühmtes Gedicht von William Butler Yeats, das er nach dem ersten Weltkrieg geschrieben hat und sicherlich Parallelen zwischen dem Chaos in Europa und den Umwälzungen , die durch die europäische Kolonisation in Afrika verursacht wurde, und die schliesslich zur Selbstzerstörungen der Igbo Kultur führte.

ITALIANO

Dopo aver letto i bellissimi libri “Americanah” e “Purple Hibiscus” della scrittrice Chamandah Ngozi Adichie, un amico mi ha consigliato di assolutamente leggere anche il capolavoro dello scrittore nigeriano di Chinua Achebe “Things Fall Apart” (Tutto si integra)che allo stesso tempo è una poesia famosa die William Butler Yeats. Quest’ultimo l’ha scritta dopo la prima Guerra Mondiale ed ha certamente dei paralleli fra il caos in Europa e i mutamenti radicali causati dalla colonizzazione europea in Africa, che alla fine ha portato alla auto-distruzione della cultura Igbo.

“The second coming”

Turning and turning in the widening gyre
The falcon cannot hear the falconer;
Things fall apart, the center cannot hold;
Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world.
– W.B Yeats, “The Second Coming”

http://www.potw.org/archive/potw351.html

In Africa

Looking at a king’s mouth,” said an old man, “one would think he never sucked at his mother’s breast.” “Wenn man des Königs’ Mund anschaut, könnte man meinen, er hätte nie an seiner Mutters’ Brust gesaugt.” “Guardano la booca del re, non si direbbe che quest’ultimo abbia mai succhiato il seno di sua madre.”

This means that the Nigerian writer, already in the 50’s, knew about Yeats, while writing on his book, which was published in 1958. By the way, it’s the first time that an African, and not a white person, speaks and writes in English from Africa and gives the continent a voice. It’s the most read book from Africa full of poetry. The story “Things Fall Apart” takes place in 1890 and is full of quotes, as the Ibo say when remembering youth: When the moon is shining the cripple becomes hungry for a walk.” It’s one of the biggest books of 200 pages!

So, for me this book speaks about two main topics. In the first part it’s the individual conflict with the system in the Igbo (Biafra) society, which is not perfect but works and is of central importance. Here the stories of the ancestors are very veneered and, it’s true, twins are killed immediately after death. Rules and taboos are relentless in this village community. The other one is, as I have mentioned before, the influence which the colonial system and its European missionaries has on this tribe.

"The clan was worried but not overmuch. If a gang of efulefu decided to live in the Eveil Forest it was their own afair. When one came to thing of it, the Evil Forest was a fit home for such undesirable people."

“The clan was worried but not overmuch. If a gang of efulefu decided to live in the Evil Forest it was their own afair. When one came to think of it, the Evil Forest was a fit home for such undesirable people.” (Painting by Tinga Tigna) “Der Clan war besorgt, aber nicht übermässig. Wenn eine Gruppe von Efulefu Leuten entschied im Wald der Bösen zu leben, dann war das ihre Sache. Wenn man darüber nachdachte, war der Wald der Bösen der richtige Platz der unewünschten Menschen.” “La tribù era preoccupata, ma non troppo. Se un gruppo di Elulefu decideva di vivere nella Foresta del Cattivo, era la sua decisione. Quando si pensava di ciò, la Foresta del Cattivo era il posto perfetto per persone indesiderate.”

Das heisst also, dass der nigerianische Schriftsteller Yeats bereits in den 5oiger Jahren kannte, während er an seinem Buch arbeitete,das dann 1958 veröffentlicht wurde. Es ist übrigens das erste Mal, dass ein Afrikaner aus Afrika in Englisch schreibt und nicht ein weisser Mann und so dem Kontinent eine Stimme gibt. Es ist das meistgelesene Buch über Afrika und voller Poetik. Die Geschichte selbst, die er beschreibt, findet 1890 statt und ist voll mit Zitaten wie das Folgende: „“Man lebt nicht am Ufer eines Flusses und wäscht seine Hände mit Spuke”Es ist einer der grössten Romane auf 200 Seiten!

Also, für mich geht es in diesem Buch um zwei Themen. Im ersten Teil ist der individuelle Konflikt mit der Igbo (Biafra) Dorfgesellschaft. Diese ist sicherlich nicht perfekt ist, aber funktioniert und ist vor zentraler Bedeutung. Hier werden die Geschichten der Ahnen hoch geehrt und es ist wahr, dass Zwillinge sofort nach der Geburt getötet werden. Die Tabus und Regeln sind unerbitterlich.

Das Zweite ist, wie ich schon sagte, der Einfluss, der das koloniale System und die europäischen Missionare auf den Clan hat.

Questo vuole dire che lo scrittore nigeriano conobbe Yeats già negli anni 50, mentre che lavoravo al suo libro che pubblicò poi nel 1958. E’ infatti anche stata la prima volta che un africano dall’Africa scrive in inglese e non un uomo bianco dando in questo modo una voce al Continente. E’ il libro su Africa più letto e anche pieno di poesia. La storia stessa che descrive ha luogo in 1890 ed è piena di citazioni. E’ il libro più grande scritto su 200 pagine!

Per me vengono trattati due argomenti. Nella prima parte c’è il conflitto individuale con la società del villaggio Igbo. La stessa certamente non è perfetta, ma funziona ed è di significata importanza. Qui vengono venerate le storie degli antenati et è pure vero che i gemelli sono uccisi subito dopo il parto. I tabu e le regole sono spietati.

Il secondo punto è, secondo me, come ho già detto prima, l’influsso che il sistema coloniale e i missionari ha avuto sulla tribù.

Die Dorfgemeinschaft/The village comunity

Die Dorfgemeinschaft/The village comunity/la comunità rurale

Okonkwo is the main character of this story and in the Igbo community. He is a highly respected and influential, hardworking leader and warmaker, who brought honour to his tribe but is unsure because of his father and also violent towards the people he loves or more precisely his wives and especially towards Ikemefuna, a boy he has taken care of and who has to be killed according the Oracle. Here, too, Okonkwo thinks that it is his duty to participate and even to give the ultimate hit to the boy. He is in complete opposition to his father, who he despises for his weakness, love for palm-wine, music and talks and because he dies with debts. I must, however, admit, that I have a lot of sympathy for the father.

Okonkwo ist die Hauptperson dieser Geschichte und in der Igbo Dorfgemeinschaft. Er ist hochangesehen und ein einflussreicher Führer, der seinem Clan Ehre bereitete, aber der auch unsicher ist, wegen seines Vaters und auch gewalttätig den Menschen gegenüber, die er liebt. Im Speziellen ist er dies mit Ikemefuna, einem Knaben den er in Obhut genommen hat und später auf Weisung des Orakels getötet werden muss. Auch hier meint Okonkwo, dass es seine Pflicht ist teilzunehmen und dem Knaben sogar den tödlichen Schlag versetzt. Er ist total das Gegenteil von seinem Vater, den er für seine Schwächen, seine Liebe für den Palm-Wein, Musik und sein Reden verachtet und vor allem, weil er hochverschuldet stirbt. Ich muss jedoch zugeben, dass ich viel Sympathie für den Vater habe.

Okonkwo è il carattere principale di questa storia e nella comunità Igbo. Egli è un „leader“ molto autorevole che fa onore al suo clan, ma è anche molto insicuro a causa di suo padre e inoltre è violento nei confronti di persone care a lui. In particolare penso a Ikemefuna, un ragazzo che Okonkwo ha preso in sua custodia e che più tardi deve essere ucciso su ordine dell’oracolo. Anche qui Okonkwo è convinto che è il suo dovere di partecipare ed è persino lui che lo colpisce a morte. Egli è totalmente differente da suo padre che disprezza per le sue debolezze, il suo amore per il vino di palma, musica e il suo parlare e soprattutto perché ha tantissimi debiti quando muore. Devo però ammettere che ho molta simpatia per il padre.

Maria mit Jesuskind

Maria mit Jesuskind/Maria con il Gesù bambino/

I especially liked chapter 20 where Okonkwo also speaks to his very dear friend Obierika:

Mir gefällt das Kapitel 20 ganz besonders, in dem Okonkwo auch mit seinem sehr speziellen und friedlichen Freund Obierka spricht:

Mi piace, soprattutto il capito 20 dove Okonkwo parla anche al suo carissimo amico Obierika

“But apart from the church, the white men had also brought a government. They had built a court where the District Commissioner judged cases in ignorance. He had court messengers who brought men to him for trial. Many of these messengers came from Umuru on the bank of the Great River, where the white men first came many years before and where they had built the center of their religion and trade and government. These court messengers were greatly hated in Umuofia because they were foreigners and also arrogant and high-handed. They were called kotma, and because of their ash-coloured shorts they earned the additional name of Ashy-Buttocks. They guarded the prison, which was full of men who had offended against the white man’s law. Some of these prisoners had thrown away their twins and some had molested the Christians. They were beaten in the prison by the kotma and made to work every morning clearing the government compound and fetching wood for the white Commissioner and the court messengers. Some of these prisoners were men of title who should be above such mean occupation. They were grieved by the indignity and mourned for their neglected farms. As they cut grass in the morning the younger men sang in time with the strokes of their matchets”:

"Nicht umsonst rennt die Kröte bei helllichtem Tag"

“Nicht umsonst rennt die Kröte bei helllichtem Tag” “Not in vain does the toad run in broad daylight” Il rospo non corre per niene corre in pieno giorno.”

“Aber ausser der Kirche hat der weisse Mann auch eine Regierung gebracht. Sie hatten ein Gericht gebaut, wo der Distriktkommissar Fälle in Unwissenheit aburteilte. Er hatte Gerichtsdiener, welche ihm Männer für den Prozess brachten. Viele dieser Gerichtsdiener kamen von Umuru, am Ufer des grossen Flusses, wo der weisse Mann sich zuerst niederliess als er vor vielen Jahren hierher kam und, wo sie das Zentrum ihrer Religion und das Handels- und Regierungszentrum bauten. Die Gerichtsdiener waren sehr verhasst in Umuofia, weil es Ausländer waren und auch, weil sie arrogant und selbstherrlich waren. Man nannte sie auch kotma und wegen ihrer aschfarbigen Shorts haben sie den zusätzlichen Übernamen “Ashy-Buttocks” –aschfarbige Hintern- bekommen. Sie bewachten das Gefängnis, welches voller Männer war, die gegen das Gesetz des weissen Mannes verstossen hatten. Einige dieser Gefangenen hatten ihre Zwillinge weggeworfen und einige hatten die Christen belästigt. Sie wurden von den Kotma im Gefängnis geschlagen, mussten jeden Morgen das Regierungsgelände reinigen und Holz holen für den weissen Kommissar und Gerichtsdiener. Einige dieser Gefangenen waren angesehene Männer, die über solchen Tätigkeiten standen. Sie waren betrübt über die Entwürdigung und über die Vernachlässigung ihrer Farmen. Als sie am Morgen Gras mähten, sangen die Jüngeren indem sie gleichmässig auf ihre Macheten schlugen.

Ma oltre alla chiesa, l’uomo bianco, ha anche portato un governo. Lui ha costruito un tribunale, dove il commissario del distretto ha condannato in ignoranza dei casi. Egli aveva degli uscieri del tribunale che gli hanno portato degli uomini per farli un processo. Tanti di questi uscieri del tribunale venivano da Umuru, alla riva del grande fiume, dove l’uomo bianco si è stabilito quando è arrivato tanti anni fa e dove ha costruito il centro di religione, del commercio e governo. Gli uscieri del tribunale erano odiati a Umuofia, perché erano stranieri e anche a causa della loro arroganza e prepotenza. Venivano anche chiamati KOTMA e per via dei pantaloncini di colore cenere hanno dato a loro il soprannome „sedere di cenere“ (Ashy Buttocks). Loro curavano la prigione che era piena di uomini che non rispettavano la legge dell’uomo bianco. Alcuni di questi prigionieri buttavano via dei gemelli e altri molestavano dei cristiani. Questi ultimi sono stati picchiati nella prigione dai KOTMA e dovevano pulire ogni mattina il terreno del governo e andare a prendere della legna per il commissario bianco e gli uscieri del tribunale. Alcuni dei prigionieri erano personaggi di rango che stavano oltre a questi lavori ed erano triste per l’avvilimento e la trascuratezza delle loro fattorie. Quando tagliavano l’erba alla mattina i più giovani cantavano battendo regolarmente sui macheti.

June Frau in Afrika

“Ekwefi,” said Ezinma, who had joined in plucking the feathers, ” my eyelid is twitching. ” It means you are going to cry,” said her mother. “No, “Ezinma said, “it is this eyelid, the top one.” “That means you will see something.” What will I see?” she asked. “How can I know?” Elwefo wanted her to work it out herself./Picture by Hans Keller

“Kotma of the ash buttocks,

He is fit to be a slave

The white man has no sense,

He is fit to be a slave”

“The court messengers did not like to be called Ashy-Buttocks, and they beat the men. But the song spread in Umuofia.Okonkwo’s head was bowed in sadness as Obierika told him these things.“Perhaps,” Okonkwo said, almost to himself. “But I cannot understand these things you tell me. What is it that has happened to our people? Why have they lost the power to fight?“Have you not heard how the white man wiped out Abame? asked Obierka.“I have heard,” said Okonkwo. “But I have also heard that Abame people were weak and foolish. Why did they not fight back? Had they no guns and machtets? We would be cowards to compare ourselves with the men of Abame. Their fathers had never dared to stand before our ancestors. We must fight these men and drive them from the land.”

Die Gerichtsdiener liebten es nicht “Ashy-Buttocks” genannt zu werden und sie schlugen die Männer. Aber das Lied verbreitete sich in Umuofia.Okonkwos Kopf was in Traurigkeit geneigt als Obierka ihm dies erzählte. “Vielleicht”, sagte Okonkwo, beinahe zu sich selbst.” Aber ich kann diese Dinge, die du mir erzählst nicht verstehen. Was ist unseren Leuten passiert? Warum haben sie die Kraft für den Kampf verloren?Hast du nicht gehört, wie der weisse Mann Abame auselöscht hat?” fragte Obierka. “ Ich habe das gehört”, sagte Okonkwo. “Aber ich habe auch gehört, dass die Leute von Abame schwach und dumm waren. Warum haben sie nicht zurück geschlagen? Hatten sie keine Gewehre und Macheten? Wir würden als Feiglinge erachtet uns mit den Männern von Abame zu vergleichen. Ihre Väter haben sich nie getraut vor unseren Ahnen zu stehen. Wir müssen diese Männer bekämpfen und sie von dem Land vertreiben.”

Agli uscieri del tribunale non piaceva di essere chiamati “Ash-Buttocks” e picchiavano gli uomini. Ma la canzone si divulgava in Umuofia. La testa di Okonkwo era inclinata dalla tristezza quando Obierika gli raccontava questo.“Magari”, disse Okonkwo, quasi a se stesso.” Ma, non riesco a capire queste cose che mi racconti. Che cosa è successo nel nostro paese? Perché abbiamo perso la forza della battaglia? Non hai sentito come il saggio uomo bianco ha eliminato Abame?” ha chiesto Obierika ”L’ho sentito,” dice Okonkwo. “Ma ho anche sentito che la gente di Abame era debole e stupida. Perché non restituiva i colpi? Non aveva fucili e Machete? Noi saremmo considerati codardi di paragonarci con uomini di Abame. I loro padri non avevano mai il coraggio di stare davanti ai nostri antenati. Dobbiamo battere questi uomini e mandarli via dal paese.”

They embrace each other!

The embrace! Die Umarmung/l’abbraccio

“It is already too late,“ said Obierka sadly. “Our own men and our own sons have joined the ranks of the stranger. They have joined his religion and they help to uphold his government. If we should try to drive out the white men in Umuofia we should find it easy. There are only two of them. But what of our own people who are following their way and have been given power? They would go to Umuru and bring the soldiers, and we would be like Abame.” He paused for a long time and then said: “ I told you on my last visit to Mbanta how they hanged Aneto.” “What has happened to that piece of land in dispute?” asked Okonkwo.

“The white man’s court has decided that it should belong to Nnama’s family, who had given much money to the white man’s messengers and interpreter.” “Does the white man understand our custom about land?” “How can he when he does not even speak our tongue? But he says that our customs are bad; and our own brothers who have taken up his religion also say that our customs are bad. How do you think we can fight when our own brothers have turned against us? The white man is very clever. He came quietly and peaceable with his religion, We were amused at his foolishness and allowed him to stay. Now he has won our brothers, and our clan can no longer act like one. He has put a knife on the things that held us together and we have fallen apart.”

„Es ist schon zu spät,“sagte Obierko traurig. ”Unsere eigenen Männer und unsere eigenen Söhne haben sich in die Reihen der Ausländer gesellt. Sie haben ihre Religion angenommen und sie helfen die Regierung aufrecht zu halten. Es scheint einfach die weissen Männer von Umuofia zu vertreiben. weil es nur zwei sind. Aber was ist mit unseren eigenen Leuten, die den Weissen folgen und von ihnen Macht erhalten haben? Sie würden nach Umuru gehen und Soldaten mitbringen und wir würden wie Abame .“ Er machte eine lange Pause und sagte dann:” Ich sagte dir letztes Mal als ich zu Besuch in Mbanta war, wie sie Aneto gehängt haben. ”Was ist aus diesem umkämpften Grundstück geworden?” fragte Okonkwo. “ Der Gerichtshof des weissen Mannes hat entschieden, dass es der Familie von Nnama gehört, die den Gerichtsdienern und Übersetzern des weissen Mannes viel Geld gegeben hat.” Versteht der weisse Mann unsere Traditionen bezüglich unseres Landes?” “Wie kann er, wenn er nicht einmal unsere Sprache spricht.” Aber er sagt, dass unsere Traditionen schlecht sind; und unsere eigenen Brüder, die seine Religion übernommen haben, sagen ebenfalls, dass unsere Traditionen schlecht sind. Wie denkst du, dass wir kämpfen können,, wenn unsere Brüder gegen uns sind? Der weisse Mann ist sehr klug. Er kam ruhig und friedlich mit seiner Religion. Wir waren belustigt wegen seiner Dummheiten und erlaubten ihm zu bleiben. Jetzt, da er unsere Brüder auf seiner Seite hat, kann unser Clan nicht mehr dementsprechend handeln. Er hat ein Messer in die Dinge gesteckt, die uns zusammen hielten und wir sind zerfallen.”

 

Okudo sang a war song in a way that no other man could. He was not a fighter, but his voice turned every man into a lion."Worthy man are no more."

Okudo sang a war song in a way that no other man could. He was not a fighter, but his voice turned every man into a lion.”Worthy men are no more.” Okudo sang eine Kriegslied auf eine Art und Weise kein anderer Mann konnte was fähig, aber seine Stimme verwandelte jeden Mann in einen Löwen. ” Würdige Männer gibt es nicht mehr” Okudo cantava il canto come nessun altro lo poteva, ma la sua voce tornava ogni uomo in un leone. “Uomini valevoli non ci sono più.”

 

“E’ già troppo tardi,” dice Obierika tristemente. “I nostri stessi uomini ed i nostri stessi figli si sono aggregati agli stranieri. Hanno adottato la loro religione e aiutano a mantenere il governo. Sembra facile mandar via gli uomini bianchi da Umuofia, perché ce ne sono unicamente due. Ma che cosa c’è con i nostri stessi uomini, che seguono i bianchi e che hanno ricevuto potere da loro? Andrebbero a Umuru per cercare soldati e noi finiremmo come Abame. “ Dopo aver fatto una lunga pausa dice:” Ti ho spiegato l’ultima volta a Mbanta come hanno impiccato Aneto “Cosa è successo del terreno contestato?” chiese Okonkwo. “ La corte di giustizia dell’uomo bianco ha deciso che appartiene alla famiglia di Nnama, la quale ha dato tanti soldi agli uscieri del tribunale e ai traduttori dell’uomo bianco, perché hanno dato tanti soldi a quest’ultimo.” “Ma, l’uomo bianco capisce le tradizioni del nostro paese?” “Come può, se non capisce nemmeno la nostra lingua? Ma egli dice che le nostre tradizioni sono cattive; e i nostri fratelli che hanno adattato la sua religione dicono la stessa cosa. Come dobbiamo batterci, se i nostri stessi figli sono contro di noi? L’uomo bianco è furbo. E’ venuto tranquillamente e in modo pacifico con la sua religione. Ci ha divertito la sua pazzia e ci siamo dichiarati d’accordo con la sua presenza. Adesso egli ha convinto i nostri fratelli, e il nostro clan non è più in grado di agire secondo come uno. Egli ha messo il coltello nelle cose che ci hanno tenute unite e noi ci sfacciamo.”

Für Deutsprechende eine Radiosendung zum Buch:

http://www.srf.ch/player/radio/52-beste-buecher/audio/alles-zerfaellt-von-chinua-achebe?id=6e49d653-c5eb-4bd0-81cf-937f5a2d34be

My post to AMERICANAH/E/D/I:https://rivella49.wordpress.com/2014/06/01/americanah-three-continents/

My post to PURPLE HIBISCUS/E/D/I:https://rivella49.wordpress.com/2014/08/13/purple-hibiscusby-chimamanda-ngozi-adichieeid/

My post to “The Danger of the single story“:https://rivella49.wordpress.com/filmsbooksed/amalias-talesyphilisugliness30/the-danger-of-a-single-story28/

 “For whom is it well, for whom is it well?”

There is no one for whom it is well?”

Ich hoffe, das ich euch neugierig auf Afrika und Nigeria gemacht habe und wünsche euch gute Lekture. I hoffe i ha eu neugirig of Afrika ond Neugeria gmacht ha ond wünsch eu viel Spass bim lese! (Schweizerdeutsch)I hope to have made you courious of Africa and especially Nigeria and wish you much pleasure reading this bool. Spero di aver provocato la vostra curiosità riguardante Africa e più precisamente Nigeria. J’espère d’avoir prvoquer votre curiosité pour l’Afrique et plus précisement la Nigeria et je vous souhaite bonne lecture!

Last but not least some IGBO music!/Oops, ich hätte beinahe IGBO Music vergessen./Scusate, ho quasi dimenticato musica IGBO.

12 replies »

  1. che post straordinario, cara Martina!Hai una cultura straordinaria, e il senso del bello molto spiccato, una ricerca accurata ed esauriente dell’argomento trattato che porta chi ti legge ad una comprensione facile ed assoluta.Davvero ti ringrazio per le molte cose che ho imparato sull’Africa, io purtroppo conosco tutti i paesi che sia affacciano in alto e non conosco quelli dell’Africa nera, c’è sempre qualche guerra o qualche epidemia che mi fa desistere dall’andare😦
    passa una notte serena mia cara

    Like

    • Le tue parole mi fanno un grandissimo piacere, cara AnnaLista e mi danno coraggio.
      Sono amante di Africa e ho inoltre fatto delle bellissime esperience con il suo popolo.
      Uno dei paesi sicuri è il Botswana e anche in Africa del Sud dovresti poter viaggiare senza problemi.
      Chi sa, se leggo già presto un tuo post da quelle parti!🙂
      Buonissima giornata e a presto.:)Martina

      Like

  2. Thank you, Martina for the recommendation. I have been able to borrow “Things Fall Apart” in audio-book format through the Vancouver Public Library. Another excellent post that inspires me to look at things differently. 🙂

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    • Dear Rebecca, it’s great for me to read that you found Thing Fall Apart” at you library in Canada. I’m courious to know whether you like it! “A Journey to Good Earth is unputdownable but very hard🙂

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  3. Sounds like a fascinating book. I know so little about African writers. Haven’t read any works by Africans yet. It’s been many years since I’ve had access to a library and ordering English language books sent over here is expensive. Your post made me realize how much I’m missing.

    Like

    • It’s good for you, dear Julie, if you don’t know much about Africa yet, so there remains to discover a lot. It would maybe be a solution for you, if you bought a kindle(reading device) so you could download the books and they also cost much less. It’s just an idea. I thank you very much for your thoughts.

      Like

      • Hi Martina – a nook or kindle would be an obvious solution. However, I despise Amazon, so I won’t buy anything from them. Last time I checked, I was not even allowed to buy a Nook from Barnes and Noble because I have a non-US credit card. I come across books here and there, passed along by other expats or sent by my family. And then there are blogs. I’m rarely without reading material.

        Like

      • I can very well understand, dear Juli, your attitude concerning Amazon and I even appreciate it! However, I wish you much pleasure in reading all these interesting “things” which are nowadays at disposal.
        Have a very pleasant day.
        PS. I didn’t know what NOOK means. Thanks

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