PIERRE POIVRE/INDONESIA/D/E/I


Mein Video zu den vielen Früchten und Gemüsen in Indonesien

Da wir das Glück hatten durch Java und einige andere indonesische Inseln zu reisen, wo wir die vielen Früchte, Gemüse und Gewürze in vollen Zügen genossen, möchte ich nun von diesen Einiges zeigen, sowie von den Erlebnissen Pierre Poivre’s erzählen. Der Forscher wurde 1719 in Lion, Frankreich geboren, wo seine Familie im Handel tätig war. Es scheint, dass er seine Theologiestudien bereits mit 16 Jahren beendet hatte und sich dann für Botanik, Naturgeschichte, Landwirtschaft, Industrie, Design und Malerei interessierte.

Mit 21 Jahren entschied er sich nach China und Vietnam zu gehen, zwecks Erweiterung seines Allgemeinwissens, bevor er Missionar werden wollte. Sein grosser Wunsch war es über Naturprodukte zu recherchieren, wie auch zur menschlichen Produktion, deren Kuriositäten und Nützlichkeiten, was helfen könnte sein Land reicher werden zu lassen.

1745 war er auf einem französischen Schiff in der Nähe von Sumatra, als dieses von den Engländern angegriffen wurde. Die Kugeln flogen auf beiden Seiten, aber eine riss ihm die rechte Hand ab und sein allererster Gedanken war, dass er so nicht mehr malen und schon gar nicht Missionar werden konnte, weil man mit der linken Hand doch keine Segnungen machte! Da die Engländer diese Schlacht gewannen, warfen sie ihn in den Schiffladeraum und der Botaniker, Pierre Poivre, der den Holländern Gewürze gestohlen hatte, wurde zum Einarmigen!

Auf dem Rückweg blieb er und die ganze Schiffsmannschaft in Batavia/Jakarta, das damals zu Holland gehörte. Er nutzte die Gelegenheit seines Aufenthaltes, um mehr über Kräuter zu erfahren mit denen die Einheimischen so viel Geld verdienten! Er hat herausgefunden, dass auf mehr als 50 Inseln Nelken und Muskatnuss angepflanzt wurden, welche die Holländer natürlich wollten! Er reiste daher auf die französischen Mauritius Inseln, sein Leben ein weiteres Mal riskierend, um zu klären, ob das Klima dort ideal für die Transplantation dieser Kräuter war.

Als Poivre schlussendlich zurück nach Frankreich wollte, um die Französisch Ostindische Kompanie von seinem Projekt zu überzeugen, wurde sein Schiff von den Engländern in der Nähe von Saint Malo gekapert, jedoch nach einer Woche Gefängnis freigelassen, weil der Französisch-Englische Krieg gerade zu Ende gegangen war. Welch ein Glück!!

Die Kompanie war begeistert von Poiver’s Idee und wollte ihn unverzüglich auf Französisch Mauritius senden, aber sie mussten ihn ziemlich umgarnen, bevor er sich ein weiteres Mal auf ein solches Abenteuer einliess. Er reiste dann also zuerst zu den Molukken Inseln und nachher, also 1749, nach Mauritius. Auch gelang es ihm und Frankreich anscheinend mit  Annam  (letztem Vietnamesischen Kaiser) ins Geschäft zu kommen.

Pierre Poivre schaffte es Zucker, Zimtbäume, Pfefferbäume, Färbebaum zu exportieren und kultivieren, vor allem, gemäss dem Forscher, trockener Reis, welcher ohne das Wasser der Reisfelder gepflanzt werden konnte.

Er war nicht nur ein Abenteuer liebende Botaniker, sondern auch ein Physiokrat. Seine Art, nicht nur ans Geschäft zu denken war aussergewöhnlich im 18. Jahrhundert. Reichtum musste von der Erde und Landwirtschaft kommen. Die Naturgesetze mussten höher gewertet werden, als die Freiheit, Geschäfte zu machen oder persönlichen Reichtum zu fördern. Poivre war mehr besorgt um die Pflanzenproduktion als um die gemachten Gewinne der importierten Pflanzen!!

Nichtsdestotrotz musste er die Gewürzproduktion aus den Klammern der Holländer herauslösen, musste gegen die französische Administration arbeiten, die ihm nicht immer half dies alles geheim zu halten. Nach vielen Niederlagen schaffte er es einen chinesischen Geschäftsmann aus Manila von der frischen molukkischen Muskatnuss und ihrer Fähigkeit zu gedeihen, zu überzeugen und sie ihm zu transportieren. Er pflanzte sie dann erfolgreich an Ort und Stelle!

MUSKATNUSS/NUTMEG/NOCE MOSCATA

As we have had the possibility to travel across Java and some other Indonesian islands, where we had the pleasure to see and eat many of their marvelous spices or fruit, I am including some of them in this post!

I also thought to speak once more about Indonesia, because I’ve recently read a highly interesting report about Pierre Poivre in the magazine “Le Point”. He was born in 1719 in Lion France, where his family was in the trader sector. It seems that he had finished his studies in theology at the age of 16, before he started to get interested in botanics, history of nature, agriculture, industry, design and painting.

At the age of 21 he decided to go to China and Vietnam in order to enlarge his general knowledge before becoming a missionary. His big desire was to make more researches concerning natures’ productions and industry of the people, which could help him to enrich his own country.

In 1745 his was on a French vessel near Sumatra, when they were attacked by the English.

The balls had been flying on both parts, but one of them rips off his right wrist and his first thought makes him become aware that he wouldn’t be able anymore to paint and that he also had to renounce to his vocation of becoming a missionary, because it was impossible to bless with the left hand!! As the English won this fight, tied him up and consequently threw him into the ship’s hold, the botanist Pierre Poivre, who had stolen the spices from the Dutch, became one-armed.

On the way back, together with the whole crew, he remained in Batavia/Jakarta, which then belonged to the Netherlands. He took advantage of this stay and learn more about spices, with which the people from Batavia earned a lot of money! He discovered that more than 50 islands produced cloves or nutmeg, which the Dutch wanted to possess! He, therefore, travelled to the French Mauritius islands, risking his life once more verifying that the climate there was perfect for transplantation of these spices.

Was wäre das Leben ohne Kaffee?Can you imagine life without coffee?? Potete immaginare la vita senza café?

When Poivre was travelling back to France in order to convince the French East India Company of his projects, the vessel was captured by the English near Sant Malo! He was held in prison for one week and got finally his freedom, because the French-English war had been finished.

The Company was enthusiastic about his proposals and wanted to send him immediately to the French Mauritius Islands, but it had to pray him intensively, before he agreed to go on a new adventure! He first traveled to the Moluccas Island and arrived consequently in 1749 on Mauritius. He even succeeded to convince the emperor of Annam to do business with France.

Pierre Poivre managed to export and cultivate sugar, cinnamon trees, pepper plants, dyeing tree and above all, according to him, dry rice, which was able to grow without the water from the ricefields.

He was not only an adventurous botanist but also a physiocrat. His way of not only thinking of business was exceptional in the 18th century. Richness had to derive from the earth and agriculture. The natural laws had to be considered higher than freedom of business and private propriety!! Poivre was more worried about the food plant production than of the gains obtained by the imported plants and business of the spices. Nevertheless, he had not only  to pull the spice production out from the clutches of the Dutch, he had also to work against some of the French administrators, who did not always help him to keep his task secret. After several pitfalls he succeeded in convincing a Chinese businessman from Manila to inform him about fresh nutmegs from the Moluccas, which would sprout, and transport them for him! He then planted them immediately and successfully on the spot!

My quiz about Indonesia!!

AUCH ZU INDONESIEN/ALSO ABOUT INDONESIA/ANCHE IN MERITO A INDONESIA
https://rivella49.wordpress.com/?s=Indonesia

Poiché abbiamo avuto la fortuna di viaggiare attraverso Java e alcune altre isole indonesiane, dove abbiamo goduto appieno dei numerosi frutti e verdure e spezie, vorrei ora raccontarvi delle nostre esperienze, così come quelle di Pierre Poivre. L’esploratore nacque nel 1719 a Lion, in Francia, dove la sua famiglia era commerciante. Sembra che finì i suoi studi teologici all’età di 16 anni e poi si interessò di botanica, storia naturale, agricoltura, industria, design e pittura.

A 21 anni ha deciso di andare in Cina e in Vietnam per ampliare le sue conoscenze generali prima di diventare missionario. Il suo grande desiderio era quello di fare ricerca sui prodotti naturali, così come sulla produzione del popolo, che avrebbe contribuito a rendere il suo paese più ricco.

Nel 1745 era su una nave francese vicino a Sumatra quando fu attaccata dagli inglesi. I proiettili volarono da entrambe le parti, ma uno gli strappò la mano destra e il suo primo pensiero fu che non poteva più dipingere in quel modo, tanto meno essere un missionario, perché non si potevano fare benedizioni con la mano sinistra, dopo tutto! Poiché gli inglesi vinsero questa battaglia, lo gettarono nella stiva della nave e il botanico Pierre Poivre, che aveva rubato le spezie agli olandesi, divenne un uomo di un’unico un braccio!

Sulla via del ritorno, lui e tutto l’equipaggio della nave rimasero a Batavia/Jakarta, che allora faceva parte dell’Olanda. Ha colto l’occasione del suo soggiorno per imparare di più sulle erbe con le quali la gente del posto faceva tanti soldi! Scoprì che i chiodi di garofano e la noce moscata erano piantati in più di 50 isole, che naturalmente gli olandesi volevano! Si recò quindi alle isole francesi Mauritius, rischiando ancora una volta la vita per scoprire se il clima lì era ideale per il trapianto di queste erbe.

Quando Poivre volle finalmente tornare in Francia per convincere la Compagnia Francese delle Indie Orientali del suo progetto, la sua nave fu catturata dagli inglesi vicino a Saint Malo, ma rilasciato dopo una settimana di prigione perché la guerra franco-inglese era appena finita. Che fortuna!!!

LA MAGNIFIQUE VILLE SAINT MALÒ!!

La compagnia era entusiasta dell’idea di Poivre e voleva mandarlo immediatamente alle Mauritius francesi, ma dovevano praticamente irretirlo prima che si imbarcasse in un’altra avventura del genere. Quindi viaggiò prima alle Molucche e dopo, cioè alle Mauritius nel 1749. Lui e la Francia sono anche riusciti a fare affari con Annam (ultimo imperatore vietnamita).

Pierre Poivre riuscì a esportare e coltivare lo zucchero, alberi di cannella, alberi di pepe, alberi di tintura e soprattutto, secondo l’esploratore, riso secco che poteva essere piantato senza acqua dei campi di riso.

Non era solo un botanico amante dell’avventura, ma anche un fisiocrate. Il suo modo di pensare non solo agli affari era straordinario nel XVIII secolo. La ricchezza doveva venire dalla terra e dall’agricoltura. Le leggi della natura dovevano essere valutate più della libertà di fare affari o di promuovere la ricchezza personale. Poivre si preoccupava più della produzione di piante che dei profitti ottenuti dalle piante importate!

Tuttavia, ha dovuto togliere la produzione di spezie dalle grinfie degli olandesi, ha dovuto lavorare contro l’amministrazione francese che non sempre lo ha aiutato a mantenere tutto questo segreto. Dopo molte sconfitte, riuscì a convincere un uomo d’affari cinese di Manila sulla noce moscata fresca delle Molucche e sulla sua capacità di prosperare. Quest’ultimo ha poi trasportato le stesse di modo che potevano essere piantato con successo sul posto!

Der Bericht über PIERRE POIVRE ist aus der Zeitschrift LE POINT/The information about the explorer here above ist from the magazine LE POINT/Le informazioni su PIERRE POIVRE vengono dalla rivista LE POINT!

https://www.lepoint.fr/histoire/pierre-poivre-le-flibustier-des-epices-28-12-2020-2407258_1615.php

Rauchzeichen der beeindruckenden Vulkane auf Java!

Voici le Video absolument intéressant, en français, sur la vie de Pierre Poivre

More about the power of plants/Mehr zu der Macht von Pflanzen/Di più sul potere del piante!!

42 replies »

  1. Was du alles weisst. Poivre hatte ja einen unglaublichen Weg hinter sich. Und so schön zu sehen, dass jeder noch so harte Weg genau (dadurch) dorthin führt, wo wir unseren Platz einnehmen sollen. So viele wichtige Botschaften hat er durch sein Leben ausgesendet.

    Liked by 1 person

    • I think dry rice may become more and more precious, because of general lack of water nowadays! Not having enough water will probably also be a very great problem in the future also for the plantion of grain or fruit!
      Many thanks for your comment:)

      Liked by 1 person

    • Thank you very much, Timothy for your comment! You know, I am in general, concentrating much more on nature and the kind of food we used to eat when we were children and therefore nutmeg and cloves had a very big importance, but nowadays, it seems to me, they are hardly used anymore, at least here!

      Liked by 3 people

  2. An meine lieben Leser, es wäre auch ganz toll, wenn jemand ein Rezept mit Muskatnuss, Nelken oder anderen frischen Gewürzen oder Kräutern beschreiben würde! Vielen Dank zum Voraus:)

    To my dear readers, it would also be great, if anybody could describe a nice recipe with nutmeg, cloves or just with any other spices or herbs! Many thanks in advance:)

    Cari lettori, sarebbe molto bello, se poteste indicare una qualque deliziosa ricetta con chiodi di garoffano, noce moscata, oppure qualsiasi altra spezie oppure erba! Grazie in anticipo:)

    Like

  3. This is a brilliant post, Martina. I have come back to it a couple of time and have placed Pierre Poivre on my “research pile” which is next to my to be read book pile. I found his sculpture on Wikipedia https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Poivre#/media/File%3ABust_pierre_poivre.jpg. The sculpture is located in the Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam Botanical Garden in Mauritius. I enjoy traveling with you, Martina – I learn so much as we walk alone.

    Liked by 2 people

  4. Das ist ein sehr interessanter und toll recherchierter Bericht, den ich gerne gelesen habe. Ich finde es immer wieder erstaunlich und beeindruckend, wie groß die Auswahl an Gewürzen ist und wie variantenreich man damit bestimmte Gerichte zubereiten kann.
    Auch deine Fotos sind wunderbar, Martina!
    Vielen Dank für diesen Trip in eine andere Welt….
    Liebe Grüße und einen schönen Abend wünscht dir…
    Rosie

    Like

    • Das freut mich sehr, Rosie, dass die mein Bericht über Pierre Poivre gefällt!
      Nelken sind z.B. auch gut bei Zahnschmerzen oder anderen Mund und Rachenproblemen.
      Lieben Gruss Martina

      Like

  5. Well, here from the colonies we have a in reverse view about the spices, and the explorers who took those spices, and new discoveries not only to Europe, but from the Americas specially Mexico, to Asia.
    Since Ferdinand Magellan, and Sebastian El Cano circumnavigated the World 1519 to 1522, Spain, and Portugal according to the treaty of Tordesillas.
    The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in Tordesillas, Spain on June 7, 1494, and authenticated in Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly-discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Spanish Empire (Crown of Castile), along a meridian 370 leagues[ west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa. That line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde islands (already Portuguese) and the islands entered by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage (claimed for Castile and León), named in the treaty as Cipangu and Antilia (Cuba and Hispaniola).

    The lands to the east would belong to Portugal and the lands to the west to Castile. The treaty was signed by Spain, 2 July 1494, and by Portugal, 5 September 1494.

    Since Spain colonized most of the Americas, except for Brazil, the Portuguese took colonies in Africa, and all through the Indian Ocean except for the Philippines colonized by Spain.
    Now that fact was very important, because the famous Nao from China, or known in English as the Manila Galleons which for two-and-a-half centuries linked the Spanish Captaincy General of the Philippines with Mexico across the Pacific Ocean, making one or two round-trip voyages per year between the ports of Acapulco and Manila, which were both part of New Spain. The name of the galleon changed to reflect the city that the ship sailed from.The term Manila galleon can also refer to the trade route itself between Acapulco and Manila, which lasted from 1565 to 1815
    .
    Around 80% of the goods shipped back from Acapulco to Manila were from the Americas – silver, at one point all the silver coins in China were minted in Mexico, and Peru, cochineal, seeds, sweet potato, tobacco, chickpea, chocolate and cocoa, watermelon, vine and fig trees. The remaining 20% were goods transshipped from Europe and North Africa such as wine and olive oil, and metal goods such as weapons, knobs and spurs.
    Cargoes varied from one voyage to another but often included goods from all over Asia: jade, wax, gunpowder and silk from China; amber, cotton and rugs from India; spices from Indonesia and Malaysia; and a variety of goods from Japan, the Spanish part of the so-called Namban trade, (Portuguese or Spanish who were the most popular western foreigners in Japan, while other western people were sometimes called (Kō-mōjin) “red-haired people” but Kō-mōjin was not as widespread as Nanban.) including fans, chests, screens, porcelain and lacquer ware.

    Galleons transported the goods to be sold in the Americas, namely in New Spain and Peru as well as in European markets. East Asia trading primarily functioned on a silver standard due to Ming China’s use of silver ingots as a medium of exchange.It was said all the silver in circulating in China as late as early twenty century were mostly bought by silver mined from New Spain (Mexico) and Potosí in Bolivia. In addition, slaves from various origins were transported from Manila.

    The cargoes arrived in Acapulco and were transported by land across Mexico. Mule trains would carry the goods along the China Road from Acapulco first to the administrative center of Mexico City, then on to the port of Veracruz on the Gulf of Mexico, where they were loaded onto the Spanish treasure fleet bound for Spain. The transport of goods overland by porters, the housing of travelers and sailors at inns by innkeepers, and the stocking of long voyages with food and supplies provided by haciendas before departing Acapulco helped to stimulate the economy of New Spain.

    As an anecdote my latest boss owned a valuable old book possibly of 1780’s that describe in detail the cargo of the ship on his way to the Philippines.

    Nice post, take care Martina. 🙂

    Liked by 3 people

    • Thank you very much, Mr. Brogido, for having me sent such a detailed and interesting account about the colonisation and business by the Portuguese and Spaniards in the Americas and f.e. Manila/Philipines. It’s also very interesting to read that all the silver used in China , was in fact printed in New Spain or Mexico. I also ask myself, how the indigenous people were treated in the whole business organized the colonizers! I have written in my post about Pierre Poivre that he discovered cloves and nutmegs in Indonesia, but do you know wheather these came originally from New Spain?
      I am sorry, but I have a feeling that the colonizers have stolen so many precious things from all these occupied places and made a lot of money with them!
      Take care, too, :)Martina

      Liked by 2 people

  6. No, cloves and nutmeg are from the islands on the Indic Ocean, but they are just minor spices, far more important was the contribution of the Americas to the World Imagine the Irish, the British, the Russians and the French with no potatoes? And for that matter the rest of Europe, and Asia!
    There were no chilies in any Asian cuisine anywhere in the world, nor were there any chilies (peppers) in any East Indian cuisine dishes, including curries. Imagine Hungarians without Paprika. Or hot spicy Chinese Yunnan, or the Sichuan, Guizhou, food, neither in Ethiopian or Senegalese African food!
    And imagine the Italians, or any other country in Europe, Asia and Africa, with no tomatoes? I guess you will have to eat pizza, and salads, and many other dishes without tomato!!
    And let me ask you?
    Do you like chocolate?
    Well, if not Mexico, no chocolate!! And I should add Vanilla into the lot!
    No sweet Potatoes
    No Squash, or Zucchini
    No Peanuts
    No Avocados
    No Pineapples
    No Papaya
    No common bean, and so named French bean, Mexican in reality.
    No Corn, or corn chips
    No Sunflower seeds, or oil
    No Mexican Cotton 90% planted around the World for textiles
    No American chestnut, Araucaria, black walnut, Brazil nut, cashew, hickory, pecan, shagbark hickory.
    No Tobacco
    No over 50 fruits some only known and consumed on the regions they grow.
    No over a dozen roots consumed in America, and Africa mainly.
    No chewing Gum
    No Rubber
    No Lima beans
    No Blueberry
    No Cranberry
    No Blackberry
    And the list can go on, and on, of many other seeds, fruits only consumed locally.
    The World will be indeed a poor place, without the contributions of the American Continents.
    And not to talk about the minerals and the mining around the Americas who made many European a rich man.

    Take care Martina! 🙂

    Liked by 2 people

    • You comment and information, Mr. Brogido, leave me absolutely speechless and I almost come to the conclusion that here in Europe we would only eat only cabbages and roots, if we had not “exported” all the rest from The Americas!!:):)
      Can you imagine that one of my acquaintences tolld me the other day that PATATOES originally came from Canada. I hope you can smile a little bit!
      By the way, it seems that some million years ago Africa got loose from South America and that is probably the reason, why they do not have, for example, tomatoes.
      I really appreciated this conversation and wish you all the best. My best regards also to Bob.
      Martina

      Liked by 1 person

      • Well, one of the reasons the Portuguese and the Spaniards had in their sea explorations since Columbus, was to bring the spices to flavor the food, spices were known on Roman times, but since Saladin kick the crusaders out of the middle east spices were not widely available, and the few were worth their weight in gold!
        The discovery of America and the richness of Mexico, and Peru, plus the trade with China, and South East Asia brought the Spanish, and Portuguese Crowns incredible richness, for centuries.
        Maybe Martina you should come to Mexico and visit Demis in San Cristobal de las Casas, a beautiful town in Chiapas, where he lives, there is many lovely Colonial towns all over in Mexico, frequented by foreign tourist, and of course there’s 11,122 km, of beautiful coasts.
        Check this video with Demis:

        Liked by 2 people

      • You know, Demis, San Cristobal and your surrounding is carrying me to a world full of joy, laughs and goodies, which are so far away from the last year, more or less shut into our homes! :):)
        However, we have in mind to not taking any plane anymore in the future due to the climate problems we have! But I am sure you will sometimes let me partecipate a little bit in your joys!
        My best wishes
        Martina

        Liked by 2 people

      • About Bob, he is having a rough time, Eva his wife has being diagnosed with cancer, I do not know for sure how long they have been married, maybe sixty years, or more! 😒

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      • We can only hope, Martina, both are quite old, at least in their early nineties..

        Like

    • Absolutely, Otto, and it makes us also aware of the fact that innummerable goodies, which have enriched us, come from far way countries!
      It left me also speechless to read from my blogger friend in Mexico about the countless things that were exported by the Spaniards and the Portuguese from The Americas.
      Many thanks for having read my reportage and have a good time.
      Best regards

      Liked by 2 people

  7. Liebe Martina,
    vor einiger Zeit las ich den wohltuend unemotionalen Bericht von Johann J. Saar “Geheimnisvolle Gewürzinseln”, über seinen 15jährigen Aufenthalt dort. Mitte des 17. Jh. reiste er zu den Gewürzinseln. Dort lernte ich auch viel über diese Gegend. Und nun wieder bei dir. Habe herzlichen Dank für diese informative Post. Übrigens die meisten Pflanzen, die wir in unseren Gärten haben, sind auch nicht heimisch.
    Mit lieben Grüßen vom kleinen Dorf am großen Meer
    The Fab Four of Cley
    🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂

    Liked by 1 person

    • Das freut mich sehr, lieber Klausbernd, dass dich die Geschichte über die Gewürze und den jeweiligen Inseln interessiert:)Ich esse jetzt jeden Tag 2 Gewürznelken wegen ihrer Heilkraft! Manchmal habe ich fast ein bisschen ein schlechtes Gewissen, wenn ich an all die Köstlichkeiten denke, die wir Dank fremder Länder besitzen.
      PS. Ich lese momentan das von dir empfohlene”I am Pilgrim” von Terry Hayes. Es ist absolut spannend und diese Schweizer Banken!!
      Viele liebe Grüsse an euch alle:):):):) Martina

      Liked by 1 person

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