SAPIENS/D/E/I


Unlängst habe ich das hochinteressante Buch «Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit»  gelesen und werde hier versuchen Einiges darüber zu erzählen.

Yuval Noah Harari schreibt in diesem, dass das was dem Menschen die eigentliche Vorherrschaft über unseren Planeten und die Tiere gegeben habe und die landwirtschaftliche, sowie die industrielle Revolution überhaupt ermöglichte, nicht so sehr unser Hirn oder der aufrechte Gang gewesen sei, sondern die Fähigkeit Geschichten zu erzählen und mit vielen anderen Menschen zusammen zu arbeiten!! Das soll auch der Grund sein, warum Affen im Zoo sind und Ameisen unseren Abfall fressen.

Vor circa 150’000 Jahren war der Homo Sapiens anscheinend nur in Afrika vertreten und er sah genauso aus wie wir jetzt. Er lebte vom Sammeln und Jagen und hatte keinen festen Wohnsitz. Um zu überleben musste er sein Territorium genau kennen, damit er täglich die Ausbeute maximieren konnte. Er musste wissen, was wann reif war und welche Vorlieben die Tiere hatten. Es war enorm wichtig zu wissen, welche Nahrungsmittel gesund waren und welche giftig, während wir nur in den Supermarkt gehen! Natürlich musste er auch Bescheid wissen, mit welchen Pflanzen er welche Krankheiten heilen konnte. Jeder musste ein Steinmesser herstellen können oder eine Kaninchenfalle. Natürlich musste er auch seine zerrissenen Kleider flicken oder hungrigen Löwen entgehen! Es scheint, dass diese Menschen als Individuum die Intelligentesten und Fähigsten aller Zeiten waren.

Aber der grosse Unterschied bestand in der Entwicklung. Der Homo Sapiens hat erst vor ungefähr 70’000 Jahren begonnen sich rasch sich zu entwickeln und sich auf dem ganzen Planeten auszubreiten. Alle anderen menschlichen Lebewesen verschwanden schnell, sobald der Homo Sapiens sich breitmachte. Man weiss auch nicht, warum er sich während ca.80’000 Jahren nur sehr wenig entwickelte und dann, plötzlich so schnell, aber es gibt viele Wissenschaftler, die diese Entwicklung «kognitive Evolution» nennen, was heisst, dass die Menschen anfingen zu sprechen und sich ihr Leben anfing überschnell zu verändern, was wahrscheinlich der Anfang der Zerstörung des Ökosystems war!

Heute wissen wir, was es bedeutet mehrere Sprachen zu sprechen und sich mit der ganzen Welt zu verständigen und austauschen zu können.

Er hat nicht nur die Vorherrschaft über die Tiere eingenommen, sondern auch über alle anderen Lebewesen auf dieser Erde und er hat angefangen Geschichten zu erfinden!

Es scheint, dass die wichtigste Funktion der Sprache das Geschichtenerzählen ist und nicht die Übermittlung von Tatsachen. So viel man weiss, ist nur der Homo Sapiens fähig von Dingen zu erzählen, die er nie gesehen, angefasst oder gehört hat. Also, nur wir erzählen Legenden, Märchen und Götter! Das kann ich sehr gut verstehen, da wir ja besonders heute über Fake News so Einiges wissen.

Übrigens beschreibt er in diesem Buch auf eindrückliche Weise, wie sich der Kapitalismus entwickelt hat! Geld wurde gebraucht um Weltreiche aufzubauen, wie auch um die Wissenschaft weiter zu entwickeln. Aber ist Geld wirklich das Endziel solcher Unternehmen,

oder vielleicht nur eine gefährliche Notwenigkeit? Auf jeden Fall scheint die moderne Wirtschaft, wie ein hormongesteuerter Jugendlicher zu wachsen und alles aufzufressen, was ihr begegnet!

Man sah, dass man mehr Geld verdienen konnte, wenn man z.B. in die Niederländische Ostindien-Kompanie, eine der grössten Handelsunternehmungen, investierte, die auch Indonesien übernahm. Dieselbe Vorgehensweise hatte auch die Britische Ostindien-Kompanie. Obwohl diese beiden Kompanien dann 1800 und 1858 verstaatlicht wurden, konnten sie sich nicht mehr aus den Klauen des Kapitals, Herrschaft und Abhängigkeit lösen!

Marx meinte anscheinend auch, dass die Regierungen eine kapitalistische Handelsunion geworden seien.

SAPIENS

I have recently read the highly interesting “SAPIENS”, a short story about humanity. Yuval Noah Harari writes in it, that the one thing that has given mankind the supremacy over our planet, the animals and the thing that made the agricultural revolution possible has not been our brain or the fact that we learnt to walk upright, but the capability to narrate stories and to cooperate with many other people. This is probably also the reason why apes live in zoos and ants eat our waste!

It seems that approx. 150’000 years ago homo sapiens just lived in Africa and that he had the same aspect as we have today. He then depended on food he collected or hunted and he had no fix home. In order to survive and to increase his prey he had to be very well acquainted with his surrounding. He had to know what was at what time ripe und what kind of advantage it had and what kind of preferences the animals had. It was extremely important to know which kinds of plants were healthy and which kinds were poisonous, because they had no supermarkets, where they could easily go to and hope to buy healthy things.

It was obvious that everyone had to be able to make a stone knife or a rabbit trap or how to mend torn garments or escape hungry lions. Yuval Harari seems to consider those human beings to be the most intelligent and most capable ones ever on an individual basis.

But the big difference was in the development. The human being only started approx. 70’000 years ago to develop very fast and to spread on the whole planet. All living beings were extinct as soon as the human being arrived. It seems not to be known, why he didn’t much develop the first approx. 80’000 years and then there was this sudden evolution, like an explosion. However, many scientists call this the cognitive evolution, which means man started to speak and their lives changed much to quickly and that was probably the beginning of the destruction of the ecosystem!

Today we know what it means to speak several languages and to be in contact and exchange ideas with the whole world. He/she has not only have taken dominance over animals, but over every living being and started to invent stories. It seems that the narrating  stories is the most important function of the language and not the transmission of truth!! As far as it is known, only the Sapiens are capable to speak about things they have never seen, such as legends, fairy tales or Gods. This I can very well understand, as today we are all much aware of fake news. Aren’t we!!

By the way, Yuval Harari describes also the development of capitalism very well in this book. Money was needed to create empires as well as science. He asks therefore, if money can really the final goal of such undertakings or just a dangerous necessity. In any case the modern economy seems to be growing and devouring everything he encounters like a hormone sousing teenager.

Investors realized that more money could be earned by investing it, for example, into the Dutch East India Company, one of the biggest trading companies. It was also this company, which took over Indonesia. The same way of procedure was applied by the British East-Indian Company. Despite the fact that these two companies were nationalized in 1800 and 1858 they have never been able to free themselves from the clutches of money, domination and dependance.

Marx was of the opinion that governments had become capitalistic trade unions!

How much time does he/she save, who doesn’t try to find out what the neighbour think!! Wieviel Zeit spart er/sie, der/die nicht versucht zu wissen, was der/die Nachbar/Nachbarin denkt????

Recentemente ho letto l’interessantissimo libro “SAPIENS”, un racconto sull’umanità. Yuval Noah Harari vi scrive che l’unica cosa che ha dato all’umanità la supremazia sul nostro pianeta, gli animali e la cosa che ha reso possibile la rivoluzione agricola non è stato il nostro cervello o il fatto che abbiamo imparato a camminare eretti, ma la capacità di raccontare storie e di cooperare con molte altre persone. Questo è probabilmente anche il motivo per cui le scimmie vivono negli zoo e le formiche mangiano i nostri rifiuti!

Sembra che circa 150’000 anni fa l’homo sapiens vivesse solo in Africa e che avesse lo stesso aspetto che abbiamo noi oggi. Allora dipendeva dal cibo che raccoglieva o cacciava e non aveva una casa fissa. Per sopravvivere e per aumentare le sue prede doveva conoscere molto bene il suo ambiente. Doveva sapere che cosa era in quale momento maturo e che tipo di vantaggio aveva e che tipo di preferenze avevano gli animali. Era estremamente importante sapere quali tipi di piante erano salutari e quali velenose, perché non c’erano supermercati dove si poteva facilmente andare e sperare di comprare cose sane.

Era ovvio che tutti dovevano essere in grado di costruire un coltello di pietra o fare una trappola per conigli o come rammendare le vesti strappate o sfuggire ai leoni affamati. Yuval Harari sembra considerare quegli esseri umani come i più intelligenti e i più capaci di sempre su base individuale.

Ma la grande differenza stava nello sviluppo. L’essere umano ha iniziato solo circa 70’000 anni fa a svilupparsi molto velocemente e a diffondersi su tutto il pianeta. Tutti gli esseri viventi si sono estinti non appena è arrivato l’essere umano. Sembra che non si sappia perché non si sia sviluppato molto i primi 80’000 anni circa e poi ci sia stata questa evoluzione improvvisa, come un’esplosione. Tuttavia, molti scienziati chiamano questa l’evoluzione cognitiva, il che significa che l’uomo ha iniziato a parlare e la sua vita è cambiata molto più rapidamente e questo è stato probabilmente l’inizio della distruzione dell’ecosistema!

Oggi sappiamo cosa significa parlare diverse lingue ed essere in contatto e scambiare idee con tutto il mondo. Non solo ha preso il dominio sugli animali, ma su ogni essere vivente e ha iniziato a inventare storie. Sembra che il narrare storie sia la funzione più importante del linguaggio e non la trasmissione della verità! Per quanto si sa, solo i Sapiens sono capaci di parlare di cose che non hanno mai visto, come le leggende, le favole o gli dei. Questo lo posso capire molto bene, visto che oggi siamo tutti molto consapevoli delle fake news. Non è vero!

A proposito, Yuval Harari descrive anche lo sviluppo del capitalismo molto bene in questo libro. Il denaro era necessario per creare imperi e anche la scienza. Si chiede quindi, se il denaro può davvero essere l’obiettivo finale di tali imprese o solo una pericolosa necessità. In ogni caso l’economia moderna sembra crescere e divorare tutto ciò che incontra come un adolescente in preda agli ormoni.

Gli investitori si resero conto che si poteva guadagnare di più investendo, per esempio, nella Compagnia Olandese delle Indie Orientali, una delle più grandi compagnie commerciali. Fu anche questa compagnia a conquistare l’Indonesia. Lo stesso modo di procedere fu applicato dalla British East-Indian Company. Nonostante il fatto che queste due compagnie siano state nazionalizzate nel 1800 e nel 1858, non sono mai state in grado di liberarsi dalle grinfie del denaro, del dominio e della dipendenza.

Marx era dell’opinione che i governi erano diventati sindacati capitalistici!

The first ape man skull nicknamed Mrs. Ples, we saw in the National Museum of natural History

About learning/teaching in the 21st century

I thought to add my post about this topic!!!!

28 replies »

  1. Liebe Martina,
    wann immer ich den Begriff “Homo Sapiens” lese/hoere, kann ich mich des Eindrucks nicht erwehren, dss der Vater dieses Begriffs sich ganz erheblich vertan haben muss. 😉
    Liebe Gruesse,
    Pit

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  2. Oh, lieber Pit, deine absolut treffende Antwort bringt mich aber sofort zum Lachen! Ich weiss jedoch, dass ich vielleicht besser weinen sollte! Ich danke dir auf jeden Fall allerbestens für deinen Kommentar:)
    Cari saluti Martina

    Liked by 1 person

  3. Der frühe Homo Sapiens war fürs Überlegen gemacht. Je mehr er sich “entwickelte” desto mehr verlor er das. Dafür wurde das Ego grösser, was das von dir erwähnte Geschichtenerzählen mit sich bringt. Manchmal denke ich wir haben uns nicht entwickelt, sondern einfach nur verändert…

    Liked by 1 person

    • Dein letzter Satz gefällt mir sehr, liebe Erika!:) Auf jeden Fall hat der Sammler und Jäger in Symbiose mit der Natur gelebt, während der Homo Sapiens sich diese zum Untertan machte! Seine physische Überlegenheit hat der Homo Sapiens verloren, weil er durch die dauernde Zunahme der Kommunikation mehr Energie in diese investierte. Die Welt hat sich dadurch meiner Meinung nach schon erweitert oder eben verändert!
      Ganz lieben Dank für deine Meinung und cari saluti:)

      Liked by 1 person

      • Stimmt! Die Prioritäten haben sich massiv verschoben. Wir haben halt unsere, ich sage jetzt mal, Intelligenz weiterentwickelt, damit wir uns das Leben eben leichter machen. Ist ja auch wirklich nichts Schlechtes. Wie alles Gute, kann man auch das missbrauchen, wenn man will. Aber zum Glück deutet vieles daraufhin, dass die Menschen ihre Fähigkeiten mehr und mehr wieder auf das Gute und das allgemeine Wohl richten, anstatt nur auf das eigene. . Auch hier haben die Jäger und Sammler gewusst, dass sie die Gemeinschaft brauchen, um zu überlegen.
        War sehr interessant und inspirierend, Martina. Hat mich gefreut 😊

        Liked by 1 person

      • Ich weigere mich, etwas anderes zu glauben. Wir kommen dort hin, ganz sicher. Hab noch einen schönen Tag, Martina 😊

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  4. “It seems that the narrating stories is the most important function of the language and not the transmission of truth!!”
    ~ Without a written record, storytelling was a way of passing on their knowledge and learned experiences to the younger generation. Survival was key.

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    • Yes, Rosaliene, this is a very important point of why storytelling is so important and in this way we learn about various situations and point of views ! I am also convinced that the stories, which have been read to us by our beloved parents or grandparents are deep in our hearts💖 I very much appreciated your words!

      Liked by 3 people

  5. Freut mich, wenn du dieses Thema in deinen Blog gebracht hast. Seit meiner Pensionierung beschäftige ich mich mit der Kulturgeschichte der Menschheit. Von …irgendwann bis 300 vor unserer Zeitrechnung. Ich bin natürlich nur auf “Funde” im Internet und gedruckten Medien angewiesen. Sammle also nur archäologische Berichte und versuche damit einen privaten Kulturkalender zu füllen. Ist reine Entspannung für mich, wenn nach meinem Tod die Klimakatastrophe die Menschheit wieder einmal durcheinanderwürfeln wird. Ciao, Ernestus.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Da hast du aber ein hochinteressantes Hobby, lieber Ernesto! Leider aber scheinen dich deine Nachforschungen in Sachen Klima nicht sehr positiv zu stimmen, was die Zukunft der Menschen nach uns betrifft!! Dein Kommentar hat mich gefreut und ich wünsche dir weiterhin viele spannende Erkenntnisse!
      Cari saluti Martina

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  6. I have been meaning to read Sapiens, which was recommended to me by my brother and mother. Thank you so much for this overview, Martina. I understand that Harari challenges us to revisit our values and beliefs. And that is always a good thing to do. It keeps us focused on learning and evolving.

    Liked by 3 people

  7. A great post, Martina, and fun to read your tale on Sapiens and also on Harari’s book with the same name. I have read it as well as his two next books about the human development. I found the first, Sapiens, to be very interesting, not the least for the critique of capitalism and challenging our belief systems. The next two books I found more speculative. Maybe most of all that he reduced human beings to be pretty much biochemistry…

    Liked by 1 person

  8. In Spanish we have a saying: “Mas sabe el diablo por viejo, que por diablo.” Translated as the devil is wise, not because he is a devil, but because he is old. And it’s through language mainly, we pass knowledge and experience.

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    • Yes, of course, knowledge and experiences and a lot of fantasy:) I very much hope that old people may also become wise or wiser!
      Thank you very much, Mr. Brogido, for having taken the time to read my summary.

      Liked by 1 person

  9. Very interesting ideas, Martina. I will try to find the book. I’d never thought about humans being the only being who can talk about things they’ve never personally experienced. Does this mean that we’re the only ones with imagination. I wonder.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Well yes, Julie, it seems that the SAPIENS is the only one with so much imagination of things he has never personaly gone through, but he somehow doesn’t see that he is destroying the earth!
      Yesterday we had a hail-storm of an intensity never seen in our region before, which shreded completely our vegetable garden, flowers and even the leaves of our big Gingko Biloba tree! For us, however, this was something we would never have imagined!
      I very much hope that Harari’s book will give you to think about “us”.
      It much enjoyed your comment and I am sending you also my best wishes:)

      Liked by 1 person

  10. Hello Martina,

    It’s been a while since I visited your blog – there’s been a lot of things happening in my part of the world and I’ve also had some projects that took me away from the blogging world for several weeks.

    I’m currently reading a book by Dr. Ernst Muldashev from Russia. The title is “Where Do We Come From?” The book was published in 2012. He travelled to the Himalayas to meet with the Lamas and wise men to find out about the origins of the human species since in those place they preserve the ancient history of humanity. In Chaper 5 he says something interesting – that there’s a possibility that apes came from men, rather than the other way around – that there was ‘Regressive Evolution’, or rather Devolution of some groups of humans. There came times when the gene pool split up / reached a fork and then some humans stayed behind in evolving and then actually regressed from there down to a more primitive state … interesting theory, no? 🙂

    As for Mr Harari’s book, I have heard a lot about it and I’ve also read some review of the book, but not all reviews were so good. Although it looks like an interesting book, and his theories are worth considering, but I’m personally not a big believer of Darwinian theories and I think Humanism has its limits as it tends to leave spirituality and intelligent design (God) out of the equation – although I’m not sure if that’s the case with his book – perhaps he does touch on it.

    I’ve not studied the origins of money, but money (coins) were already in use in the time of Jesus and also in the Roman empire – so, it would be interesting to research if the trade at that time was a form of capitalism. At some stage I’ll probably look into as you have made me wonder about this question: How old is capitalism? We know bartering is very old indeed.

    About stories: In this case I think the origin of stories can be found in mythology which had two fucntions: to educate and to act as a form of historical record (some times a blend of the two). In Mayan mythology we wind a lot of that – the combination of story with real events on the calander to act as a historical record. It seems almost all the ancient stories have some educational components – like star and planetary movements, or depicting certain rulers at the time as gods for example (Egyptian mythology).

    Thank you for this thought-proviking article, it seems you thouroughly enjoyed the book and that’s the important part – thanks for sharing and for listening to my point of view 🙂 🙂

    Sending you my Best Wishes from a cold Cape Town!
    Jean-Jacques

    Liked by 1 person

    • I very much appreciate your highly interesting thoughts about the human being, his development, and, of course, the time you have given to it, Jean Jacques, despite your many other commitments:)
      I understand that Harari considers the hunters and collectors as very efficient, because they changed their homes continuously and had therefore always to learn about new plants, animals or living situations. But he also considered them as more free, because they had not, like the farmers after the agricultural revolution, continuously to be afraid of not producing enough.
      The book you mention “Where do we come from” by Dr. Ernst Muldashev seems to be another source to get more information about the origin of man. It is not the first time that I hear about the possibility that man comes from ape and I would not only call it regression!
      Harari speaks of three most important factors in our development, after the “cognitive revolution:
      1. Money (He specially mentions, for example, the private British or Dutch trading companies ) It made me think of Pierre Poivre! Maybe the beginning of capitalism!
      2. Politics
      3. Religion (Harari says, for example, that religions were also responsible of social stability.) It’s not a book about spirituality, according to me, but the thought about reaching Nirvana was very interesting to me! To accept something that can’t be changed. But when is this really a fact, which means, when can I not change my situation anymore? Does one not get too lazy?
      I very much like your opinion concerning stories and their importance:):) and wish you also a very good time in Cape Town, where we had very nice weather!
      Martina

      Liked by 2 people

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